Beas River - Course Map and its History
An agreement to share surplus water of Ravi and Beas Rivers was signed that allowed the India “free and unrestricted use” of Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. . Haryana took up the matter with PM and at a meeting on December 16, , .. shortlink · Report this content · Manage subscriptions; Collapse this bar. land called "bar" e.g,the Nili Bar (between the Sutlej and the Beas),the Punjab produces a surplus quantity of cotton and after meeting the. The Beas River is a river in north India. The river rises in the Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows for some kilometres ( mi) to the Sutlej River in the Indian On meeting the Sivalik Hills in Hoshiarpur, the river sweeps sharply northward, forming the boundary with Kangra District. Then bending.
By the use of modern equipments better results can be achieved in the shortest time. Co-operative Farming Co-operative farming refers to the farming done on the basis of mutual help and co-operation. Under this method the small holdings are consqildated. In this way the owners of small holdings can also use fertilizers and modern equipments jointly. After harvesting,the yield can be distributed among the owners according to their ownership.
Education Level Increase of literacy ratio in rural areas especially in agre-education is the need of the day. The more educated the farmers will be the better will be the results achieved. Marketing Facilities Marketing procedures should be simplified and various marketing facilities should be provided to the cultivators.
Improvement In The Means Of transportation And Communication The rural areas of the country must be provided with road and railway links with marketing centres and better means of transport and communication should be provided. Climatic Regions of Pakistan Climate The atmospheric conditions at any conditions at any place are known as weather. Climate is a generalization of the day to day weather conditions during the course of a year.
It means average weather,including its variation from season to season. Temperature ,pressure,wind rainfall etc. The climate of a particular place is controlled by several geographical ractors like: Climate of Pakistan The whole of Pakistan lies in the warm temperate zone. It lies roughly between 24 degree N and 37degree N latitude.
Pakistan is noted for hot summer and cold winters with semi-arid to arid conditions prevailing in most parts,sub-humid conditions in a small area in the north. The topographic diversity and location of large areas a long distance from the sea have all the more intensified the climate contrasts. The rainfall is generally low. The monsoons bring such marked characteristics that a seasons in Pakistan.
Winter season from November to February 2. Summer season from March to June 3. Monsoon or Rainy season from July to October Climatic Regions Of Pakistan Keeping in view the various climatic factors,Pakistan can be divided into the following climatic regions: In this region winters are cold and lengthy and often the temperatures goes below the freezing point; and the higher peaks remain snow -covered throughout the year.
But here summer remains short cool and temperature. The North Western mountain areas have less amount of rainfall as compared to North Eastern mountains,e. It mostly comes during winter and spring. The North Western mountainous areas are less fertile and have barren rocks without any natural vegetation.
Due to some rain in winter and spring,some grass and shrubs appear,which promotes the rearing of sheep and goats. Here winters are cold ,and in summer temperature goes higher enough and often dust storms prevail. Although it has higher altitude ,but due to poor rainfall,these have turned into arid desert. In these areas there is scarcity of rain water and it is less than 10 inches or 25 cm. Nokundi has only 1. It has generally arid and extreme climate. Here summer remains long and hot,but winters are cool and short.
It has the hotest places of the country such as Jaccobabad and Sibbi. The rainy season begins in the middle of the summer months. The places which are situated near pledmont areas have enough rainfall e. Sialkot has about 30 inches or But the western part of this plain is drier than the eastern due to very poor rainfall e.
Sutlej Yamuna link canal - Wikipedia
Here due to the influence of the sea,the temperature remains moderate ;the rainfall is about 7 inches or 18 cm. The influence of sea breeze during day time is felt throughout the summer. Most of the plain areas of Pakistan have been built by alluvial soil brought by the River Indus and its tributaries. But due to deficient rainfall ,agricultural activities cannot be performed without adopting some artificial means of irrigation.
So the areas lying between the rivers have provided irrigation facilities through canals and various types of crops are grown in these areas. The Rivers of our country used to take millions of gallons of water into the Arabian Sea. That water is being used for canal irrigation and a number of dry desert areas have become fertile and productive regions of our country.
The supply of water in our rivers remains irregular during the year. To regulate the water supply throughout the year the year the water is stored by constructing barrages,dams and weirs etc. The slope of our country lies from north east towards south.
This helps in the construction of canals and water can easily be distributed through canals from higher regions to lower areas. All the rivers of our country come from snow-covered mountainous areas,having abundance of rainfall in summer ,in those rivers a huge amount of water comes due to heavy rainfall and the melting of snow during summer.
Thus we store this surplus water in huge dams which is used for irrigation purposes in dry season. The upper and lower areas of Indus plain have soft soil,where digging of canals is easier,and cheap labour is available in abundance.
That reduces the cost of construction. That is why canal irrigation is preferred in our country. Canal water adds to the fertility of the soil by bringing a number of organic and in-organic matters with it,while the water of tube -wells lacks all these matters,so people prefer canal irrigation.
Canal irrigation is the cheapest and easiest means by which vast areas can be commanded and made productive. Means Of Irrigation In Pakistan The following means of irrigation are practiced in various areas of our country: This is one of the oldest methods of irrigation which is being used from ancient times in our country. Well irrigation is quite common in pledmont areas of North Eastern mountains and in the vicinity of rivers where the water-table is high.
They are found all over the plain where canal water is not available and water table is high enough for their construction. Many shallow wells are dug by hand the areas where the water table is not far below the surface of the earth. The water is then lifted by "Charas" or "Persian wheels" driven by oxen or camels.
In areas where the water table is low and cheap electric power is available ,tube wells are used;due to shortage of canal irrigation water ,government is encouraging the farmers to dig more and more tube wells. Irrigation from rivers is an ancient practice. It was being carried before the birth of christ in various areas of our country,but the modern system of large perennial canals was introduced by the Britishers. The first modern canal in Punjab was opened in ;it was taken out from river Ravi at madhopur Gurdaspur district,India.
After that a number of canals have been taken out from various rivers and our country has got one of the most excellent systems of irrigation in the world. The canals found in our country may be divided into the following types: Those canals which supply water to their commanded areas throughout the year are known as perennial canals. To regulate the supply dams and barrages have been built. Most of the canals of our country are of this type.
Such canals runs only during the summer and the rainy season. They are closed down during winter months when there is not enough water in the rivers. Some of the canals from Sutlej ,the Sidhnal canals from Ravi and Haveli canals from Chenab are of this type. Only one crop can be harvested in the commanded areas of such types of canals. These canals work only during the rainy season,when the rivers have a plenty of water. Because no dam or barrage is built at their head ,their construction cost being low,they also help in reducing the flood water and save the area from many dangers.
Many old canals from the Indus and Chenab are of this type. In Baluchistan short underground canals called Karez have been built to carry the water which soaks into the ground at the foot of the mountains to the fields and villages. As the canals are underground no water is wasted by evaporation. In Queta and Pashin districts this system is very popular and a large area of this region is irrigated by the Karez system.
Canal Systems The irrigated area is served by more than 40 major canal commands. Main canals start from a barrage or dam or weir on a river.
SATLUJ RAVI BEAS CHENAB
A barrage feeds one or more main or link canals. A number of minor tributaries feed out of the main canal and these in turn,serve a number of outlets to the farmers water-courses each of which irrigates between 60 and hectares.
There are three major groups of canal system: The upper Jhelum,the upper Chenab,and the lower Bari Doab canals together form The Triple Project ,which was designed to carry surplus water from the Jhelum to the Chenab ,and from the Chenab to the Ravi. Other barrages,in descending order along the river,are Jinnah barrage near Kalabagh,part of the Thal project;Taunsa Barrage km. In addition to these major projects.
The Agricultural Development Corporation has set up the small Dam Organization to construct dams of localized utility storing the flood water of hill stream. A number of such dams have been constructed in the dry sub-mountain areas of the north west.
Mangla And Tarbella Dam The Mangla Dam Under the Indus Basin Treaty,this is the second largest multi-purpose project designed to control and conserve the flood water of the Jhelum for use mainly as replacement irrigation supplies for the area which was served by the three eastern rivers.
On the Jhelum river near the village of the Mangla,about two miles upstream from the regulator of the upper Jhelum Canal and about 20 miles from Jhelum town,a dam of the embankment type has been built. The dam has crest length of about 11, feet and its height is feet. The reservoir created by the dam is about 40 miles long,having a storage capacity of 5.
It is the second largest earth filled dam of our country. The project is providingkilowatts of electricity and 88 lakh acre feet water for irrigation purposes. The design of the dam has a provision for future extension.
Hydropower Generation Performance in Sutlej River Basin
Its height can also be increased about 99 feet and storage capacity can also be increased upto 9. The Mangla lake has been developed as a fishing centre and a health and tourist resort. This project was completed in The Tarbela Dam This is one of the largest earth and rock filled dam in the world. This dam has been built on the river Indus at Tarbela,15 miles from maripur and 30 miles from Attock.
This is also a multipurpose project.
Panjnad River - Wikipedia
The dam has a gross storage capacity of It is 9, feet long and feet high. A 50 mile long lake has been built behind it. It will provide 21 lakh kilowatts of electricity and 93 lakh acre feet of water for irrigation when completed. It construction started in under the Indus Basin Treaty,and the dam was completed in The installation of 10 units of electricity has been completed in There is proposal of or the tarbela project that 2 large off-channel reservoirs will have to be built to increase storage and lengthen the life of the generating facilities,since silting is expected to reduce the life of main dam.
Water from Tarbela will be used in the Haro and Soan Basins and for replacement the supplies will be diverted to the Chashma Jhelum link canal and thence to the Trimmu-Sidhnaj-Mailsi-Bahawal link system. This project will help other barrages to retain the supply of water. Barrages According to Indus Basin Treaty five barrages have been built and various link canals have been taken out from these barages.
A link Canal has been taken out from the right bank of Chashma providing water to canals of jhelum and Chenab. The work of Chashma wast Bank is under progress. It is hoped that after completion,this canal will irrigate large area of barren land in Dera ismail Khan and dera Ghazi Khan districts. The other Barrages from where the following link canals have been taken out are: Rasul at Jhelum 2. Near Qadirabad on Chenab 3. Near Sighnaj on Ravi 4. Near Mailsi below the existing Islam headworks on the Sutlej.
Although the issue of water of Sutlej river was resolved through the Bhakra Nangal projectthe issue of surplus waters of Ravi river and Beas river excluding the pre-Partition use remained. Haryana asked the Union government to intervene as no agreement could be reached.
Inwhen the country was under an internal emergencyan executive order was issued by the Union government which allocated 3. In order to make full use of the allocated water, a Sutlej-Yamuna Link Canal was proposed. The decision was met with opposition in Punjab.
After coming to power inthe Shiromani Akali Dal demanded that the water sharing between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan be adjudicated by Supreme Court and filed a suit against the order of the Union government. The government later issued a notification to acquire land for the SYL canal. Under the agreement, Punjab's share was increased to 4. All states withdrew their suits from the Supreme Court following the signing of agreement.
On 8 AprilIndira Gandhi formally launched the construction of the canal at Kapoori village of Punjab in On 23 April, the Punjab government issued a white paper hailing the agreement. The Akali Dal came back to power in Punjab in October and on 5 Novemberthe newly-elected Punjab Legislative Assembly repudiated the agreement.
Balakrishna Eradi was constituted on 2 April On 30 Januarythe tribunal upheld the legality of the agreements ofand It also noted that while the canal's portion had been completed in Haryana, the portion in Punjab wasn't and urged that it be completed expeditiously.
InHaryana filed a suit in the Supreme Court seeking construction of the canal. Punjab refused to do so and petitioned for a review of the court order which was rejected. Inthe Supreme Court directed the Union government to get the canal completed through a central agency. However, on 12 Julythe Punjab Legislative Assembly passed the Punjab Termination of Agreements Act, which abrogated all its river water agreements with neighbouring states.
The President of India then referred this bill to the Supreme Court in the same year. Sidhu, utilising revenue powers that rests with an IAS officer.