Utility-controlled Consumption Scheduling for Power-grid. Operational The smart energy grid has evolved into a complex ecosystem, with new entering .. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, July  A. Hess, F. Smart grids, Energy management, Renewable resources, Storage systems, able to optimize costs and to minimize the risk of loss of production excess. In order to meet consumers' needs, the smart grid exchanges a huge amount of. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy Management. Authors: Iordanis Koutsopoulos.
In the future, more Phasor Measurement Units PMU will be installed across the transmission grid for enhanced situational awareness, operation and control. Integration of large scale wind and solar generation at transmission level is a challenge due to undispatchability of wind and solar resources.
Effective solutions to deal with power angle and voltage stability due to wind and solar power variations are needed. One possible solution is to employ utility scale energy storage techniques such as thermal storage systems two-tank direct system, two-tank indirect system, or single-tank thermocline system.
Practical techniques to optimize and control the grid considering the characteristics of energy storage systems and intermittent energy sources will need to be developed.
Transformation of Electric Power Grid into Smart Grid | OMICS International
Schemes for wide area protection and control of transmission networks to reduce cascading faults are needed. Distribution systems have limited SCADA functionality, limited metering and communication infrastructure. Advanced metering infrastructure is being deployed in distribution grids, which will provide two-way communication between customers and utilities. Consumer load data at a desired time interval, say 15 minutes, will be available to control room for improved operation, control and protection purposes.
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Applications that benefit from the load data may include voltage and var control and optimization, optimal power flow, asset management, and adaptive protection.
Consumers will receive electricity pricing information from utilities, based on which consumers can better manage their own usage of electricity. In demand side management programs, consumer load is controlled by utilities to reduce peak load and consumers get financial benefits in return. Load leveling can greatly improve system reliability and also reduce utility generation capacity. Another important application that is under deployment is integrated voltage and var optimization, where the settings of tap changer transformers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks are calculated based on the load level and network data to reach the goal of minimizing the system loss or system demand depending on the business need.
Solar or wind generation integration is also a great challenge due to power output variability. Fast cloud passing can cause drastic voltage fluctuations at a time resolution of seconds. Trying to chase the fast transients will only lead to excessive wear and tear of mechanical controllers, and has little efficacy due to their large time constants.
Tapping the ability of power electronics based smart inverters to quickly change their reactive power output to counter the real power output is a promising way to solve the problem. In a two level control scheme, the mechanical controllers and power electronics devices take care of the longer term system variations global control and the power electronics devices cope with the fast changing transients local control. The global control will provide the base operating point, and smart inverters can act autonomously.
In another possible variant scheme, smart inverters can communication with each other and work together, thus resulting in a sub-global control of inverters, where all inverters are optimized to control transient voltages.
A short term and long term solar power production forecast method based on real time weather and cloud data will enhance the operation and planning of the power system. Energy storage systems can also be harnessed to compensate for generation variability. Opportunities arise to develop optimization techniques to achieve optimal operation of the entire system.
Advanced outage management system, protection and restoration of distribution systems are other important areas that deserve deliberation. Future distribution grids will no longer be radial and will contain an increasing number of distributed generations. Coordination among substation relays, reclosers and feeder fuses becomes increasingly complex and difficult.
In a possible solution, a distribution network is partitioned into zones based on load and generation distribution, which are connected through circuit breakers controlled by relays.
Increasingly, however, power systems are being tested by the growing frequency of extreme conditions and events, such as hurricanes, severe storms, and drought, which can cause considerable physical damage to power generation and grid infrastructures. They can also sharply limit the effectiveness of specific types of generation. Thermoelectric power generation, for example, can be compromised by rising air temperatures and reduced water availability—conditions that are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Midwest, Great Plains, and southern regions of the US.
Hydropower generation can be challenged by reduced snowpack, premature melting, and changes in precipitation patterns. They also expect the provision of sophisticated services and features, such as energy efficiency services and demand management guidance.
Optimized, or smart, power grids are vital for ensuring that power systems can meet these and future challenges. But what will such grids look like? See Climate Change and the U. Characteristics and Key Benefits of Smart Grids Smart grids will possess a number of critical characteristics. They will be fully automated and leverage or enable the deployment of smart technologies, such as smart metering. They will be seamless, enabling multidirectional power flows and transactions among utility distribution companies, power producers, and the wholesale market.
Their physical and operational qualities will yield improved safety and reliability. These characteristics will translate into many tangible benefits for both grid operators and consumers. Operators will be better able to do the following: Effectively dispatch power as well as balance supply and demand in the system Identify outages more quickly and accurately as well as make repairs remotely more readily Diagnose potential problems and optimize their preventive-maintenance practices, resulting in a reduced need for remedial action, improved overall maintenance efficiency, extended life cycles for equipment, and, ultimately, greater profitability for the system Identify opportunities for improvements to the system Consumers will experience greater reliability, and the quality of the power supply will improve; they will see fewer, less lengthy blackouts.
They will also be able to use smart technologies to gain a greater understanding of their personal patterns of power consumption and usage, and then compare those patterns with hourly power rates. This will allow consumers to potentially reduce their usage or lower their monthly bills by shifting some of their usage to less-expensive times of the day.
The introduction of renewables—especially intermittent ones, such as wind and solar photovoltaic power—and distributed generation into established power systems brings a host of challenges to those systems. These challenges include unpredictable peaks and valleys in power production and power demand that must be compensated for; two-way flows of electricity that is, from the grid to consumers and from consumers back to the grid ; and the need to maintain and seamlessly deploy reliable sources of backup power.
Smart grids should be sufficiently flexible to be able to respond to some of these challenges. Changes in the energy landscape—including the growing prevalence of distributed generation and the increasing reach of digital technologies, which allow for better monitoring, management, and customization of power generation and consumption—are fostering the development of new business models and applications across the value chain.
Many of these models and applications stand to yield significant green benefits; virtually all will demand smart, flexible, resilient grids. Such questions will include the following: How can the development of renewable energy sources and distributed generation be encouraged while maintaining the reliability and financial stability of the network?
Optimizing Grids to Meet New Demands on Power Systems
What are the best ways to manage fluctuations in production and demand? How are grid companies being paid for investments necessary to enhance the grid? How should the involved costs and incremental benefits be calculated? Who should pay for the additional costs to the system?
The Fairness of the Regulatory Framework. How can the best solution be identified and developed? From a system perspective, would it make more sense to foster utility-scale renewables than distributed generation?