Albania–India relations - Wikipedia
Official name: Republika e Kosovës (Albanian); Republika Kosovo (Serbian) .. Kosovo's exports, predominantly scrap metal, went mainly to Italy, India, Albania . What's New. Search. Briefs on Foreign Relations Briefs on India's Bilateral Relations. A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K (45 KB). Albania · Albania ( KB) . India is the largest country in the South Asia Region, located primarily in the center By the time of its tenth Guru - Guru Gobind Singh, however, relations were hostile. India to test nuclear weapons twice (including the tests described as .. e-Visa fee of USD 80 (+% bank fee): Albania, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla.
Marathas lost their command over India after the third battle of Panipat, which in turn paved a way for British Colonialism. South India followed a different trajectory, being less affected by Islamic rule. Prominent among them were the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara empires who ruled from present day Karnataka and the Pallavas, Cheras, Pandyas and Cholas who ruled from present day Tamil Nadu; Kerala. Among them, the Cholas are widely recognised to be the most powerful of the South Indian Kingdoms, with their territory stretching as far north as Pataliputra and their influence spreading as far east as Sumatra, Western Borneo and Southern Vietnam at the height of their power.
Some of the grandest Hindu and Jain monuments that exist in India were built during this time in South and East India. European traders started visiting India beginning in the late 16th century. Prominent among these were the British, French and the Portuguese. They also established subsidiary cities like Bombay and Madras. Calcutta later went onto to become 'the second city of the empire after London '.
By the 19th century, the British had, one way or the other assumed political control of virtually all of India, though the Portuguese and the French too had their enclaves along the coast. There was an uprising by Indian rulers in which was suppressed, but which prompted the British government to take over from the Company and make India a part of the empire. Many Indians converted to Christianity during the period, for pretty much the same reasons as they converted to Islam, though forcible conversions ended in British India afterand Queen Victoria's proclamation promised to respect the religious faiths of Indians.
However, independence was simultaneously granted to the secular state of India and the smaller Islamic state of Pakistanand the orgy of Hindu-Muslim blood-letting that followed Partition led to the deaths of at least half a million and the migration of million people.
Free India under Nehru adopted a democratically-governed, centrally-planned economy. These policies were aimed at attaining "self-sufficiency", and to a large extent made India what it is today. India achieved self-sufficiency in food grains by the s, ensuring that the large-scale famines that had been common are now history.
However these policies also led to shortages, slow growth and large-scale corruption. After a balance-of-payments crisis inthe country adopted free-market reforms which have continued at a meandering pace ever since, fueling strong growth. The IT and the business outsourcing industries have been the drivers for the growth, while manufacturing and agriculture, which have not experienced reforms, are lagging.
Relations with Pakistan have been frosty. The two countries have fought four wars, three of them over the status of Kashmir. The third war between the two countries in resulted in East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh.
India continues to experience occasional terrorist attacks that are widely believed to originate in Pakistan and ordered by its military-intelligence complex.
China and India went to war in over a border dispute.
Though current relations are peaceful, there is still military rivalry and no land crossings are allowed between the two countries, though one border crossing between Sikkim and Tibet was re-opened in for trade but not tourists. Security concerns over Pakistan and China prompted India to test nuclear weapons twice including the tests described as "peaceful explosions". India wants to be accepted as a legitimate nuclear power and is campaigning for a permanent Security Council seat.
India is proud of its democratic record. Constitutional government and democratic freedoms have been safeguarded throughout its 60 years as an Independent country, except for an 18 month interlude inwhen Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency, suspending elections and human rights.
Current concerns in India include the corruption, poverty, over-population, environmental degradation, ongoing disputes with Pakistan and China, terrorism, and ethnic and religious strife. But the current comparison, at least among the educated elite, is over whether India will be able overtake to China in economic growth.
At the same time the Indians, both Elite or otherwise, are very specific that they would want to achieve equitable and sustainable growth, unlike China and also not be reduced to dictatorship or communist rule for the sake of economic growth. The President, indirectly elected, is the Head of State, but his or her position, while not entirely ceremonial, has limited powers.
The Parliament is bi-cameral. The Lok Sabha, the lower house, is directly elected by adult franchise, while the Rajya Sabha, or the upper house, is indirectly elected. The Lok Sabha is the more powerful of the two, primarily because a majority in the Lok Sabha is required to form a government and pass budgets. India has a vast number of political parties,recently got a highly stable government led by hugely popular Narendra Modi where a single party got absolute majority after a slew of coalition led governments in which no single party has secured a majority in the Lok Sabha, leading to unstable governments and raucous politics.
The transition of power has always been peaceful and always constitutional. India has a strong and independent judiciary Supreme Court of India is apex court, and each state has an highcourt.
India is also a Federal Republic, divided into states and union territories. Each of these have their own legislatures, with government run by a chief minister and a cabinet. Street demonstrations and political agitations occur, as they do in any democracy, though there is also occasional low-level violence. A visitor has only a miniscule possibility of getting caught in these demonstrations. Daylight saving is not observed. Geography[ edit ] Mountains, jungles, deserts, and beaches, India has it all.
It is bounded to the north and northeast by the snow-capped Himalayas, the tallest mountain range in the world. In addition to protecting the country from invaders, they also feed the perennial rivers Ganga, Yamuna Jamuna and Sindhu Indus on whose plains India's civilization flourished. Though most of the Sindhu is in Pakistan now, three of its tributaries flow through Punjab. The other Himalayan river, the Brahmaputra flows through the northeast, mostly through Assam.
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South of Punjab lies the Aravalli range which cuts Rajasthan into two. The western half of Rajasthan is occupied by the Thar desert. The Vindhyas cut across Central India, particularly through Madhya Pradesh and signify the start of the Deccan plateau, which covers almost the whole of the southern peninsula. The plateau is more arid than the plains, as the rivers that feed the area, such as the Narmada, Godavari and the Kaveri run dry during the summer.
Towards the northeast of the Deccan plateau is what used to be a thickly forested area called the Dandakaranya which covers the states of ChhattisgarhJharkhandthe eastern edge of Maharashtra and the northern tip of Andhra Pradesh.
This area is still forested and populated by tribal people. This forest acted as a barrier to the invasion of South India. India has a long coastline.Indian Spirit Group Albania- Best Wedding
Lakshadweep Islands Gulmarg In India, it rains only during a specific time of the year. The season — as well as the phenomenon that causes it — is called the monsoon. There are two of them, the Southwest and the Northeast, both named after the directions the winds come from.
The Southwest monsoon is the more important one, as it causes rains over most parts of the country, and is the crucial variable that decides how the crops will do. It lasts from June to September. The Southwest monsoon hits the west coast the most, as crossing the western ghats and reaching the rest of India is an uphill task for the winds.
The western coastline is therefore much greener than the interior. The Northeast monsoon hits the east coast between October and February, mostly in the form of occasional cyclones which cause much devastation every year.
The only region that gets rains from both monsoons is North-Eastern India, which consequently experiences the highest rainfall in the world. The North experiences some extremes of heat in Summer and cold in Winter, but except in the Himalayan regions, snow is almost unheard of. November to January is the winter season and April and May are the hot months when everyone eagerly awaits the rains. There is also a brief spring in February and March, especially in North India.
Opinions are divided on whether any part of India actually experiences an Autumn, but the ancients had certainly identified such a season among the six seasons or ritus - Vasanta - Spring, Greeshma - Summer, Varsha - Rainy, Sharat - Autumn, Shishira - Winter, Hemanta - "Mild Winter" they had divided the year into.
Culture[ edit ] India's rich and multi-layered cultures are dominated by religious and spiritual themes. While it is a mistake to assume that there is a single unified Indian culture, there certainly are unifying themes that link the various cultures.
India's cultural heritage is expressed through its myriad of languages in which much great literature and poetry has been written. It can be seen in its music - both in its classical Carnatic and Hindustani forms and in modern cinema music. India also has a vast tradition of classical and folk dances. Art and theatre flourish amongst the bustling cities of the country, against the backdrop of the ever expanding western influences.
Vibrant processions are seen going on everywhere, especially during festivals. Ganesh Chatutrthi processions in Mumbai, Dusshera in Mysore etc. Along with these, marriage and religious processions are also seen on the roads. You can see people dance, play music and drums, play with colors etc. Indians value their family system a lot. Typically, an Indian's family encompasses what would be called the extended family in the West.
It is routine for Indians to live as part of the paternal family unit throughout their lives - i. The relationship is mutually self-supporting. Parents may support their children for longer than is common in the West, brothers and sisters may support each other, and sons are expected to take care of their parents in their old age. Nowadays, most indian families are becoming more nuclear.
Naturally, the arrangements are not perfect and there are strains and breakups, especially by the time the third generation grows up. Also, it has now become common for children to move away from the parental house for education and employment. Nonetheless, it is fair to say that the joint family is still seen as the norm and an ideal to aspire to, and Indians continue to care about their family's honour, achievements and failures even while they are not living together.
Despite the weakening of the caste system, India remains a fairly stratified society. Indians care about a person's background and position in society as is the case elsewhere in the world. This attitude, when combined with the legacy of colonial rule, results in some rather interesting, if unfortunate consequences. Paler skin is deemed desirable but there is no discrimination on the basis of color.
Holidays[ edit ] There are three national holidays: In addition, there are four major nationwide festivals with shifting dates to be aware of: On the first day, people go to temples and light bonfires, but on the second, it's a waterfight combined with showers of coloured powder.
This is not a spectator sport: Alcohol and bhang cannabis are often involved and crowds can get rowdy as the evening wears on. Workers are given sweets, cash bonuses, gifts and new clothes.
It is also new year for businessmen, when they are supposed to start new account books. In some places like West BengalDurga Puja is the most important festival. In the north Dussehara celebrations take place and the slaying of Ravana by Lord Rama is ceremonially reenacted as Ram Lila.
In Gujarat and South Indiait is celebrated as Navarathri where the festival is celebrated by dancing to devotional songs and religious observances like fasts extended over a period of 9 nights. Eid-ul-Fitr, the largest religious holiday of the year for Indian Muslims, it celebrates the start of the holy month of Shawwal. Ramzan ends with the Eid-ul-Fitr festival extending over several days.
Food is the highlight, and if you're lucky you'll be invited into a private home for a feast. Businesses close for at least a couple days if not a week. Diwali lighting Diwali DeepavaliOct-Nov — The festival of lights, celebrates the return of Lord Rama to the capital of his kingdom, Ayodhya after an exile of 14 years.
Probably the most lavish festival in the country, reminiscent to U. Houses are decorated, there is glitter everywhere, and if you wander the streets on Diwali night, there will be firecrackers going off everywhere including sometimes under your feet.
To this end, they created around our delegation a harsh and dangerous atmosphere, in which open threats were combined with cunning flattery. We are for carrying the matter through to the end.
If this is not understood, it means that the danger which the Khrushchev group represents for the world communist movement is not understood. It does not depend on us whether this group should continue in power or not, but it is essential that we, should expose this group with Khrushchev at the head, as they deserve Precisely to defend the Soviet Union and the Party of Lenin, these 'rascals' must be exposed, and there must be no toning down of criticism or covering up of the deviationists.
I've heard so much about you Throughout the whole dinner she did not speak to us again. This anti-Chinese material did not surprise us, but it strengthened the conviction we had in the correctness of the line and the Marxist-Leninist stands of our Party in defence of the Communist Party of China.
This question he addressed to our generals at the airport, in the presence of one of your generals. Our officers replied that our army would be loyal to Marxism-Leninism, to the Party of Labour and socialism. He committed this 'foolishness' following the Bucharest Meeting.
Khrushchev threatened Hoxha, saying, "We can dismantle the base if you like. We have fought empty-bellied and bare-footed, but have never kowtowed to anybody. You spat on me; no one can talk to you. For this it had been treated in a manner that was shabby, anti-Marxist and uncomradely.
Hoxha's speech had a shattering effect on the Moscow gathering. But this is neither Marxist nor acceptable. Marxism-Leninism has granted us the right to have our say, and no one can take this from us, either by means of political and economic pressure, or by means of threats and names they might call us. His denunciation of Khrushchev made headlines round the world and even his harshest critics usually concede that Hoxha turned in an able performance and showed personal courage.
After his speech, comrade Dolores Ibarrurian old revolutionary and a devoted worker in the Communist movement, got up indignantly and said, very much to the point, that Hoxha was like a dog who bites the hand that feeds it. Hysni and Ramiz stayed on in Moscow, as they had to sign the declaration" while Hoxha left the Soviet Union by train and "arrived in Austria, went down by train through Italy and from Bari returned safe and sound to Tirana on our own aircraft and went directly to the reception organized on the occasion of the 28th and 29th of November.
But in spite of all the crushing blows and defeats it has received, revisionism The Albanians later claimed that the specialists had sabotaged Albania's oil installations before departing. Among other things it stated that "It is understandable that the Albanian leadership cannot expect in the future that the USSR will help it as it has in the past, with aid from which only true friends and brothers have a right to benefit.
Difficulties increased even more after the cessation of military aid. Thus in the first years of the 3rd Five-year Plan the fulfillment of the plan in many sectors of the economy was made very difficult and to a certain extent the development of the Albanian economy as a whole was impaired.
Since then, there has been not a single Albanian studying at a military academy in the Eastern Bloc. It has been impossible, therefore, for the Tirana Government to keep its army up-to-date on military theory. They came allegedly 'to reach agreement', but in fact they brought us an ultimatum: The Vlora base must be put completely and solely under Soviet command, which was to be subordinate to the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty. On April 5,in a letter addressed to the governments of the Soviet Union and the East-European states it resolutely reaffirmed that it accepted only one solution of the problem: Any other solution was an act which would lead to the unilateral violation on the part of the Soviet Union of the existing Albanian-Soviet agreements of the years and On May 26, it seized in a demonstrative manner 8 submarines, the floating base 'Kotelnikov', as well as the Albanian warships that were laid for repair in the port of Sevastopol.
On June 5, the personnel of Soviet advisers left the base at Vlora, too. Admiral Vladimir Kasatonov of the Black Sea fleet "came to Tirana with the mission of seizing not only the eight submarines We told him bluntly: Either you hand the submarines over to us according to the agreement, or within a short time we set the date you must withdraw immediately from the bay He did not hand over the submarines, but went to Vlora, boarded the command submarine and lined up the others in fighting formation.
We gave orders to close the Sazan Narrows and to train the guns on the Soviet ships. Admiral Kasatonov, who had wanted to frighten us, was frightened himself. He was caught like a rat in a trap and if he attempted to implement his plan he might find himself at the bottom of the sea.
In these conditions the admiral was obliged to take only the submarines with Soviet crews, and he sailed out of the bay back home with his tail between his legs. They would rather die honourably on their feet than live in shame on their knees. Pano noted that "[Khrushchev's] pronouncements [at the Twenty-Second Congress], at least insofar as the Soviet leadership was concerned, had made the policies of de-Stalinization, peaceful coexistence, and reconciliation with Yugoslavia adopted at the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU binding upon the members of the communist system.