# Reversible figure ground relationship law of continuity and principle closure

### What Visual Marketers Should Know About Gestalt Principles

Learn and understand these principles of Gestalt Psychology, as they relate to photography are: Figure-ground, Closure, Continuance, The Law of Figure- Ground refers to the relationship between an object and its surroundings. However, photographs that are more ambiguous create an enigma that. We're now going to take a look at some more Gestalt principles, The Figure/ Ground law examines how the eye can separate shapes Reversible –In this case, the figure and background have near-equal density. . LinkedIn have used the law of common fate to build a relationship between sub-menus. Proximity of shapes affects the visual relationships of shapes within a frame, but the illustration may be a bit too simplistic. There are a number of ambiguous groupings and what you do make out, about figure and ground is an excellent example of closure at work). Next Time: Continuity and Prägnanz.

Proximity Proximity grouping is the influence objects within close proximity assert on each other. Looking below you will see how a grid of evenly spaced objects is nothing more than a grid of evenly spaced objects. It has balance and logic.

Gestalt Psychology in Urdu/Hindi (Gestalt Laws of Perception/Organization)

Therefore, it is comfortable to the brains and the eyes can rest on it easily. In the second image, we still have a grid of objects, but the brain accepts each set of double rows as being a single group of objects, though of the same shape.

There is still a balance in the logic; it is just a bit more complex. Proximity also works for dissimilar groups of objects, as shown below. Proximity of shapes affects the visual relationships of shapes within a frame, but the illustration may be a bit too simplistic. In the illustration below we will mix it up just a bit to reinforce the notion. We now see 3 shapes of blue and 1 shape of grey.

How does your brain relate them into groups? Though it is a different color and shape, the strongest reading seems to be that the square is grouped with the 2 overlapping blue shapes.

The single blue shape on the upper left is likely grouped with nothing. Now, consider the grouping in relation to the whole page. A secondary reading may appear grouping all 4 object together when contrasted to the type and page layout. This occurs because there is no framing around the 4 objects presenting them as separate from the balance of the page. This changes their reference and logic, so the brain may see them in either light. This leads to incoherence, not allowing for the eyes to find a comfortable point of focus.

Similarity Similarity grouping is the influence that objects of like shape can assert on each other. Repetition of shape within the frame creates associations. In the illustration below grouping is mostly by shape. Even though the columns are separated they still associate in the mind.

Because they are similar in size and color the grouping seems to be weak. Color can be used to reinforce Similarity.

### Principles of grouping - Wikipedia

Most people would see the arrows in this illustration below as being of two different groups based upon their color alone.

There is no proximity change needed to induce the effect. Look at the more complex examples of Similarity in the next two illustrations. The lines seem to be one group and the triangles seem to be another. Now look at the same frame without the triangles. Can you pick out any groupings now? You might see the two adjacent lines on the left side running diagonally to the right as being a group due to the similarity of angle. You might also see the two lines running from edge to edge as grouped.

There are a number of ambiguous groupings and what you do make out, appears depending on your momentary point of focus. Comparing the two illustrations show some of the strength in using similarities to create groupings within the frame.

## Gestalt – Grouping – Proximity, Similarity, and Closure

Similarities can take the form of colors, as we have seen. They can also be shaped by textures, values, tones, movement, symmetries, etc, as seen below. Similarity of shapes in an image produce repetition.

Repetition in an image can be as strong an element in imaging as it is in music. But too much repetition can become boring, so the best repetition also has an amount of variation included.

How many similarities, or repetitions, can you pick out in the portrait of three peasants by the German photographer, August Sanders? What variations do you find? Attention needs be paid to placement in this case. For example, an image of a single texture throughout the frame will be boring, while taking swaths of differing shapes or colors of the same texture, arranged in a pleasing way may not.

Closure Closure is the brain completing what is suggested or implied. Our brain uses similarity to distinguish between objects which might lie adjacent to or overlap with each other based upon their visual texture.

## Principles of grouping

An example of this is a large area of land used by numerous independent farmers to grow crops. Each farmer may use a unique planting style which distinguishes his field from another.

Another example is a field of flowers which differ only by color. Either principle can dominate the other, depending on the application and combination of the two.

For example, in the grid to the left, the similarity principle dominates the proximity principle and you probably see rows before you see columns. Closure is also thought to have evolved from ancestral survival instincts in that if one was to partially see a predator their mind would automatically complete the picture and know that it was a time to react to potential danger even if not all the necessary information was readily available.

Good continuation[ edit ] Law of good continuation When there is an intersection between two or more objects, people tend to perceive each object as a single uninterrupted object. This allows differentiation of stimuli even when they come in visual overlap.

We have a tendency to group and organize lines or curves that follow an established direction over those defined by sharp and abrupt changes in directionamasing When visual elements are seen moving in the same direction at the same rate optical flowperception associates the movement as part of the same stimulus.

### The Gestalt Principles

For example, birds may be distinguished from their background as a single flock because they are moving in the same direction and at the same velocity, even when each bird is seen—from a distance—as little more than a dot. The moving 'dots' appear to be part of a unified whole.

Similarly, two flocks of birds can cross each other in a viewer's visual field, but they will nonetheless continue to be experienced as separate flocks because each bird has a direction common to its flock.