Management - Wikipedia
Customer-Relationship-Management, kurz CRM (englisch fÃ¼r  AdministraciÃ³n basada en la relaciÃ³n con los clientes, un modelo de gestiÃ³n de toda la organizaciÃ³n, Customer relationship management - Wikipedia, den frie. CRM may refer to: Contents. 1 Publications; 2 Science and healthcare; 3 Institutions and Clerics Regular Minor, Roman Catholic religious order; Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, a mathematics research institute in Barcelona; Centre de. In commerce, customer experience (CX) is the product of an interaction between an Gartner asserts the importance of managing the customer's experience. Creating direct relationships in the place where customers buy, use and receive services by a العربية · Deutsch · Español · فارسی · Français · Հայերեն · Italiano.
Customer experience - Wikipedia
Mirrors for princes Written in by Adam Smitha Scottish moral philosopherThe Wealth of Nations discussed efficient organization of work through division of labour. While individuals could produce pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48, pins per day.
About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney —James Watt —and Matthew Boulton — developed elements of technical production such as standardizationquality-control procedures, cost-accountinginterchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi- mass production. Salaried managers as an identifiable group first became prominent in the late 19th century.
Examples include Henry R.
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Gantt 's charts s. Duncan wrote the first college management- textbook in In Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became the first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style".
His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around People like Henri Fayol — and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships.
Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. Other writers, such as Elton Mayo —Mary Parker Follett —Chester Barnard —Max Weber —who saw what he called the "administrator" as bureaucrat Rensis Likert —and Chris Argyris born approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.
Peter Drucker — wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation published in It resulted from Alfred Sloan chairman of General Motors until commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. Dodge, Ronald Fisher —and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the s, Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied-mathematics science of operations researchinitially for military operations.
Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" but distinct from Taylor's scientific managementattempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision-problems, and can apply directly to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.
Some of the more recent [update] developments include the Theory of Constraintsmanagement by objectivesreengineeringSix Sigmathe Viable system modeland various information-technology -driven theories such as agile software developmentas well as group-management theories such as Cog's Ladder. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Creation era[ edit ] The term "supply chain management" was first coined by Keith Oliver in However, the concept of a supply chain in management was of great importance long before, in the early 20th century, especially with the creation of the assembly line.
The characteristics of this era of supply chain management include the need for large-scale changes, re-engineering, downsizing driven by cost reduction programs, and widespread attention to Japanese management practices.
However, the term became widely adopted after the publication of the seminal book Introduction to Supply Chain Management in by Robert B. Handfield and Ernest L. This era has continued to develop into the 21st century with the expansion of Internet-based collaborative systems.
This era of supply-chain evolution is characterized by both increasing value added and cost reductions through integration. A supply chain can be classified as a stage 1, 2 or 3 network. In a stage 1—type supply chain, systems such as production, storage, distribution, and material control are not linked and are independent of each other.
In a stage 2 supply chain, these are integrated under one plan and enterprise resource planning ERP is enabled. A stage 3 supply chain is one that achieves vertical integration with upstream suppliers and downstream customers. An example of this kind of supply chain is Tesco. Globalization era[ edit ] It is the third movement of supply-chain-management development, the globalization era, can be characterized by the attention given to global systems of supplier relationships and the expansion of supply chains beyond national boundaries and into other continents.
Although the use of global sources in organisations' supply chains can be traced back several decades e.
This era is characterized by the globalization of supply chain management in organizations with the goal of increasing their competitive advantage, adding value, and reducing costs through global sourcing. Specialization era phase I: They abandoned vertical integration, sold off non-core operations, and outsourced those functions to other companies. This changed management requirements, by extending the supply chain beyond the company walls and distributing management across specialized supply-chain partnerships.
This transition also refocused the fundamental perspectives of each organization. Original equipment manufacturers OEMs became brand owners that required visibility deep into their supply base. They had to control the entire supply chain from above, instead of from within. Contract manufacturers had to manage bills of material with different part-numbering schemes from multiple OEMs and support customer requests for work-in-process visibility and vendor-managed inventory VMI.
The specialization model creates manufacturing and distribution networks composed of several individual supply chains specific to producers, suppliers, and customers that work together to design, manufacture, distribute, market, sell, and service a product.
This set of partners may change according to a given market, region, or channel, resulting in a proliferation of trading partner environments, each with its own unique characteristics and demands. Specialization era phase II: Market forces sometimes demand rapid changes from suppliers, logistics providers, locations, or customers in their role as components of supply-chain networks. This variability has significant effects on supply-chain infrastructure, from the foundation layers of establishing and managing electronic communication between trading partners, to more complex requirements such as the configuration of processes and work flows that are essential to the management of the network itself.
Supply-chain specialization enables companies to improve their overall competencies in the same way that outsourced manufacturing and distribution has done; it allows them to focus on their core competencies and assemble networks of specific, best-in-class partners to contribute to the overall value chain itself, thereby increasing overall performance and efficiency.
The ability to quickly obtain and deploy this domain-specific supply-chain expertise without developing and maintaining an entirely unique and complex competency in house is a leading reason why supply-chain specialization is gaining popularity.
Enterprise resource planning - Wikipedia
Outsourced technology hosting for supply-chain solutions debuted in the late s and has taken root primarily in transportation and collaboration categories. This has progressed from the application service provider ASP model from roughly throughto the on-demand model from approximately throughto the software as a service SaaS model currently in focus today.
The growing popularity of collaborative platforms is highlighted by the rise of TradeCard 's supply-chain-collaboration platform, which connects multiple buyers and suppliers with financial institutions, enabling them to conduct automated supply-chain finance transactions. At its core, the common attribute of Web 2. It is the notion of a usable pathway. It is the pathway to SCM results, a combination of processes, methodologies, tools, and delivery options to guide companies to their results quickly as the complexity and speed of the supply-chain increase due to global competition; rapid price fluctuations; changing oil prices; short product life cycles; expanded specialization; near- far- and off-shoring; and talent scarcity.
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February SCM 2. This is delivered through competency networks composed of best-of-breed supply-chain expertise to understand which elements, both operationally and organizationally, deliver results, as well as through intimate understanding of how to manage these elements to achieve the desired results. The solutions are delivered in a variety of options, such as no-touch via business process outsourcingmid-touch via managed services and software as a service SaaSor high-touch in the traditional software deployment model.
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