Food Web and Food Chain - humans, examples, body, water, plants, chemical, energy, animals
Scientists sometimes describe this dependence using a food chain or a food web . Food Chain Examples of decomposers are worms, bacteria, and fungi. Lets go grass = producer; zebra = primary consumer; lion = secondary consumer. Basically, food web represents feeding relationships within a community (Smith interactions that define energy flows and predator-prey relationship (Cain et al. . from primary producers to primary consumers (herbivores), and from primary. Former DCI John Deutch himself once quipped, "I mean, really, when What the producer-consumer relationship needs, then, is not radical.
Individual organisms live together in an ecosystem and depend on one another. In fact, they have many different types of interactions with each other, and many of these interactions are critical for their survival.
So what do these interactions look like in an ecosystem? One category of interactions describes the different ways organisms obtain their food and energy. Some organisms can make their own food, and other organisms have to get their food by eating other organisms. An organism that must obtain their nutrients by eating consuming other organisms is called a consumer, or a heterotroph. While there are a lot of fancy words related to the sciences, one of the great things is that many of them are based on Latin or Greek roots.
Food web and food chain
They then use the energy and materials in that food to grow, reproduce and carry out all of their life activities. All animals, all fungi, and some kinds of bacteria are heterotrophs and consumers. Some consumers are predators; they hunt, catch, kill, and eat other animals, the prey. The prey animal tries to avoid being eaten by hiding, fleeing, or defending itself using various adaptations and strategies.
These could be the camouflage of an octopus or a fawn, the fast speed of a jackrabbit or impala, or the sting of a bee or spines of a sea urchin. If the prey is not successful, it becomes a meal and energy source for the predator.
- Ecological interactions
If the prey is successful and eludes its predator, the predator must expend precious energy to continue the hunt elsewhere. Predators can also be prey, depending on what part of the food chain you are looking at. For example, a trout acts as a predator when it eats insects, but it is prey when it is eaten by a bear. It all depends on the specific details of the interaction. Ecologists use other specific names that describe what type of food a consumer eats: Omnivores eat both animals and plants.
Once again, knowing the Latin root helps a lot: For example, an insectivore is a carnivore that eats insects, and a frugivore is an herbivore that eats fruit. This may seem like a lot of terminology, but it helps scientists communicate and immediately understand a lot about a particular type of organism by using the precise terms.
Not all organisms need to eat others for food and energy. Some organisms have the amazing ability to make produce their own energy-rich food molecules from sunlight and simple chemicals. Organisms that make their own food by using sunlight or chemical energy to convert simple inorganic molecules into complex, energy-rich organic molecules like glucose are called producers or autotrophs. Some producers are chemosynthesizers using chemicals to make food rather than photosynthesizers; instead of using sunlight as the source of energy to make energy-rich molecules, these bacteria and their relatives use simple chemicals as their source of energy.
Chemosynthesizers live in places with no sunlight, such as along oceanic vents at great depths on the ocean floor. No matter how long you or a giraffe stands out in the sun, you will never be able to make food by just soaking up the sunshine; you will never be able to photosynthesize.
Producers use the food that they make and the chemical energy it contains to meet their own needs for building-block molecules and energy so that they can do things such as grow, move, and reproduce.
All other life depends on the energy-rich food molecules made by producers — either directly by eating producers, or indirectly by eating organisms that have eaten producers. Not surprisingly, ecologists also have terms that describe where in the food chain a particular consumer operates. A primary consumer eats producers e.
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers in the Forest Community
And it can go even further: The feeding relationships of organisms in the real world is almost always more complex than suggested by a food chain. For that reason, the term food web is more accurate than is food chain. A food web differs from a food chain in that it includes all the organisms whose feeding habits are related in some way or another to those of other organisms.
In the example above, small animals other than rabbits feed on lettuce and carrots and, in turn, those animals are fed upon by a variety of larger animals.
Structure of food webs Food webs are organized into three main categories, depending on the kinds of organisms they contain. These three categories are known as trophic levels. The three primary trophic levels are those that consist of 1 producers, 2 consumers, and 3 decomposers.
Producers are organisms that can make their own organic compounds or food using energy and simple inorganic compounds. Producers are sometimes called autotrophs, meaning "self-feeders. The next trophic level above the producers consists of consumers.Learn Biology: Trophic Levels and Producer vs. Consumer
Consumers are organisms that cannot make their own foods and so have to eat other organisms to obtain the nutrients they use. The consumer trophic level can be subdivided depending on the kind of organisms included. Immediately above the producers are the herbivores, organisms that eat plants only. Some common examples of the herbivores include squirrels, rabbits, mice, deer, cows, horses, sheep, and seed-eating birds.
The herbivores are sometimes called first-order consumers or primary consumers because they occupy the first level above the producer trophic level. Above the primary consumers, the food web fans out to include two other kinds of consumers. The carnivores are animals that eat other animals, and the omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals.
Within the food web, carnivores and omnivores can be on any higher trophic levels. Some are secondary consumers or second-order consumers, meaning that they eat primary consumers.
Snakes that eat mice primary consumers are secondary consumers. Other higher-level consumers are tertiary consumers or third-order consumers, and eat further up on the food web or perhaps on many levels.
Examples of third-order consumers are mountain lions and hawks, both of whom eat second-order consumers such as snakes and owls. Words to Know Biomagnification: The increasing concentration of compounds at higher trophic levels.
A sequence of organisms directly dependent on one another for food. An interconnection of many food chains. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy that is stored in the tissues of primary producers for example, green plants. An organism that eats primary producers. An organism that makes its own food. A feeding level in a food web. The third trophic level consists of decomposers or detritivores pronounced de-TRY-tuh-vorz.
Organisms in this trophic level survive by eating dead organisms.
Producer Consumer Relationships
Some decomposers, such as earthworms, feed directly on dead plants and animals. These organisms convert dead organisms to simpler substances that are then digested even further by other decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi.
They can rework the remains of dead organisms, progressively extracting more and more energy. Eventually the waste materials are broken down into simple inorganic chemicals such as water, carbon dioxide, and simple nutrients. The nutrients may then be reused by the primary producers in the lowest part of the food web. The decomposer food web is very active inside of compost piles where kitchen wastes are converted into a soil conditioner. Decomposers are active in all natural ecosystems.
Ecological pyramids Food webs are, of course, collections of organisms.